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FUTURE LOGIC

© Avi Sion, 1990 (Rev. ed. 1996) All rights reserved.

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PART I. ACTUAL CATEGORICALS.

1. INTRODUCTION.

1. What is Logic?

2. What Logic is Not.

3. Modus Operandi.

4. Scope.

2. FOUNDATIONS.

1. The Law of Identity.

2. The Law of Contradiction.

3. The Law of the Excluded Middle.

3. LOGICAL RELATIONS.

1. True or False.

2. Branches of Logic.

3. Tools of Logic.

4. Axioms of Logic.

4. WORDS AND THINGS.

1. Verbalizing.

2. Same and Different.

3. On Definition

5. PROPOSITIONS.

1. Terms and Copula.

2. Polarity and Quantity.

3. Distribution.

4. Permutation.

6. OPPOSITIONS.

1. Definitions.

2. Applications.

3. Validations.

See also, in this context, Appendix 2.

7. EDUCTIONS.

1. Definitions.

2. Applications.

3. Validations.

8. SYLLOGISM: DEFINITIONS.

1. Generalities.

2. Valid/Invalid.

3. Figures

4. Moods.

5. Psychology.

9. SYLLOGISM: APPLICATIONS.

1. The Main Moods.

2. On the Fourth Figure.

3. Subaltern Moods.

4. Singular Moods.

5. Summary.

6. Common Attributes.

7. Imperfect Syllogism.

10. SYLLOGISM: VALIDATIONS.

1. Function

2. Methods.

3. In Practise.

4. Derivative Arguments.

Summary of findings in the chapters of this part:

Part I. Actual Categorical Logic . This is classical, Aristotelean logic, embellished somewhat over the centuries.

1. We distinguished between the art of logic, and the science of it. The former is commonly practised, the latter is intended to guide practise, as well as serve to provide theoretical grounds for human knowledge.

2. We discussed the three Laws of Thought instituted by Aristotle, the founder of logical science as we know it. They are our principal equipment in sorting out the phenomena appearing before us.

3. The basic tools of logic were introduced: the concepts of truth and falsehood, and logical relations like implication, incompatibility and exhaustiveness.

4. We discussed how words are related to the things they refer to, the concepts of sameness and difference, and the role of definition.

5. The features of the propositional forms called actual categorical were described, distinguishing the terms and copula, and the polarity and quantity. The traditional notation for these various propositions was introduced.

6. The various oppositional relations of propositions were defined, and these concepts were applied to actual categoricals, by means of diagrams and tables, and the findings were validated.

7. The various eductive processes which propositions may be subjected to were defined, and these concepts were applied to actual categoricals, and the findings were validated.

8. Syllogistic deduction was defined, its figures and moods, and the discrimination between valid and invalid such arguments.

9. The main valid moods, plural and singular, of actual categorical syllogism were listed; and the less significant moods of the fourth figure and the subaltern moods, as well as imperfect syllogism were also mentioned. The common attributes of the valid moods were noted.

10. Finally, why and how syllogism are validated was considered. Also, derivative arguments, like sorites, were mentioned.

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