www.TheLogician.net© Avi Sion All rights reserved

FUTURE LOGIC

© Avi Sion, 1990 (Rev. ed. 1996) All rights reserved.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Contents in brief:

Abstract

Part I. Actual Categoricals.

 

1. Introduction.

 

2. Foundations.

 

3. Logical Relations.

 

4. Words and Things.

 

5. Propositions.

 

6. Oppositions.

 

7. Eductions.

 

8. Syllogisms: Definitions.

 

9. Syllogisms: Applications.

 

10. Syllogisms: Validations.

 

Part II. Modal Categoricals.

 

11. Modality: Categories and Types.

 

12. Sources of Modality.

 

13. Modal Propositions. 

 

14. Modal Oppositions and Eductions.

 

15. Main Modal Syllogisms.

 

16. Other Modal Syllogisms.

 

17. Transitive Categoricals.

 

18. Permutation.

 

19. More About Quantity.

 

Part III. Logical Conditioning.

 

20. Credibility.

 

21. Logical Modality.

 

22. Contextuality.

 

23. Conjunction.

 

24. Hypothetical Propositions.

 

25. Hypotheticals: Oppositions and Eductions.

 

26. Disjunction.

 

27. Intricate Logic.

 

28. Logical Compositions.

 

29. Hypothetical Syllogism and Production.

 

30. Logical Apodosis and Dilemma.

 

31. Paradoxes.

 

32. Double Paradoxes.

 

Part IV. De Re Conditioning.

 

33. Conditional Propositions.

 

34. Natural Conditionals: Features.

 

35. Natural Conditionals: Oppositions, Eductions.

 

36. Natural Conditional Syllogism and Production.

 

37. Natural Apodosis and Dilemma.

 

38. Temporal Conditionals.

 

39. Extensionals: Features, Oppositions, Eductions.

 

40. Extensional Conditional Deduction.

 

41. Modalities of Subsumption.

 

42. Condensed Propositions.

 

Part V(a). Class-Logic.

 

43. The Logic of Classes.

 

44. Hierarchies and Orders.

 

45. Illicit Processes in Class Logic.

 

Part V(b). Adduction.

 

46. Adduction.

 

47. Theory Formation.

 

48. Theory Selection.

 

49. Synthetic Logic.

 

Part VI. Factorial Induction.

 

50. Actual Induction.

 

51. Elements and Compounds.

 

52. Fractions and Integers.

 

53. Factorial Analysis.

 

54. Modal Induction.

 

55. Factor Selection.

 

56. Applied Factor Selection.

 

57. Formula Revision.

 

58. Gross Formula Revision.

 

59. Factorial Formula Revision.

 

Part VII. Perspectives.

 

60. Phenomena.

 

61. Consciousness and The Mind.

 

62. Perception and Recognition.

 

63. Past Logic.

 

64. Critique of Modern Logic.

 

65. Developments in Tropology.

 

66. Metalogic.

 

67. Inductive Logic.

 

68. Future Logic.

 

 

Appendix 1

 

Appendix 2

 

References

 

Contents in detail:

Abstract

Further Description

Suggested Readings

 

PART I. ACTUAL CATEGORICALS.

  

1.        INTRODUCTION.

 

1. What is Logic?

2. What Logic is Not.

3. Modus Operandi.

4. Scope.

 

2. FOUNDATIONS.

 

1. The Law of Identity.

2. The Law of Contradiction.

3. The Law of the Excluded Middle.

 

3. LOGICAL RELATIONS.

 

1. True or False.

2. Branches of Logic.

3. Tools of Logic.

3. Axioms of Logic.

 

4. WORDS AND THINGS.

 

1. Verbalizing.

2. Same and Different.

3. On Definition

 

5. PROPOSITIONS.

 

1. Terms and Copula.

2. Polarity and Quantity.

3. Distribution.

3. Permutation.

 

6. OPPOSITIONS.

 

1. Definitions.

2. Applications.

3. Validations.

See also, in this context, Appendix 2.

7. EDUCTIONS.

 

1. Definitions.

2. Applications.

3. Validations.

 

8. SYLLOGISM: DEFINITIONS.

 
  1.   Generalities.

  2.   Valid/Invalid.

  3.   Figures

  4.   Moods.

  5.   Psychology.

 

9. SYLLOGISM: APPLICATIONS.

 
  1.   The Main Moods.

  2.   On the Fourth Figure.

  3.   Subaltern Moods.

  4.   Singular Moods.

  5.   Summary.

  6.   Common Attributes.

  7.   Imperfect Syllogism.

 

10. SYLLOGISM: VALIDATIONS.

 
  1.   Function

  2.   Methods.

  3.   In Practise.

  4.   Derivative Arguments.

 

PART II. MODAL CATEGORICALS.

  

11.         MODALITY: CATEGORIES AND TYPES.

 
  1.   Seeds of Growth.

  2.   Categories of Modality.

  3.   Types of Modality.

  4.   Extensional Modality.

  5.   Temporal Modality.

  6.   Tense and Duration.

  7.   Natural Modality.

  8.   Other Types.

 

12. SOURCES OF MODALITY.

 
  1.   Diversity.

  2.   Time and Change.

  3.   Causality.

 

13. MODAL PROPOSITIONS.

 
  1.   Categories and Types.

  2.   List and Notation.

  3.   Distributions.

 

14. MODAL OPPOSITIONS AND EDUCTIONS.

 
  1.   Quantification of Oppositions.

  2.   Basic Intramodal Oppositions.

  3.   Quantified Intramodal Oppositions.

  4.   Intermodal Oppositions.

  5.   Eductions.

See also, in this context, Appendix 2.

15.   MAIN MODAL SYLLOGISMS.

 
  1.   Valid Modes.

  2.   Valid Moods.

  3.   Validations.

 

16. OTHER MODAL SYLLOGISMS

 
  1.   Secondary Modes.

  2.   Mixed Modes.

  3.   Summation.

  4.   General Principles.

 

17. TRANSITIVE CATEGORICALS.

 
  1.   Being and Becoming.

  2.   Various Features.

  3.   Various Contrasts.

  4.   Some Syllogisms.

 

18. PERMUTATION.

 
  1.   Two Senses of ‘Is’.

  2.   Other Permutations.

  3.   Verbs.

  4.   ‘As Such’ Subjects.

  5.   Commutation.

 

19. MORE ABOUT QUANTITY.

 
  1.   Substitution.

  2.   Comparatives.

  3.   Collectives and Collectionals..

  4.   Quantification of the Predicate.

 

PART III. LOGICAL CONDITIONING.

  

20. CREDIBILITY.

 
  1.   Laws of Thought.

  2.   Functions.

  3.   More on Credibility.

  4.   Opinion and Knowledge.

 

21. LOGICAL MODALITY.

 
  1.   The Singular Modalities.

  2.   The Plural Modalities.

  3.   Analogies and Contrasts.

  4.   Apodictic Knowledge.

 

22. CONTEXTUALITY.

 
  1.   Statics.

  2.   Dynamics.

  3.   Time-Frames.

  4.   Context Comparisons.

  5.   Personal and Social.

 

23. CONJUNCTION.

 
  1.   Factual Forms.

  2.   Oppositions of Factuals.

  3.   Modal Forms.

  4.   Oppositions of Modals.

 

24. HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS.

 
  1.   Kinds of Conditioning.

  2.   Defining Hypotheticals.

  3.   Strict or Material Implication.

  4.   Full List of Forms.

 

25. HYPOTHETICALS: OPPOSITIONS AND EDUCTIONS.

 
  1.   Connection and Basis.

  2.   Oppositions.

  3.   Hierarchy.

  4.   Eductions.

 

26. DISJUNCTION.

 
  1.   Subjunction.

  2.   Manners of Disjunction.

  3.   Broadening the Perspective. 

 

27. INTRICATE LOGIC.

 
  1.   Organic Knowledge.

  2.   Conjunctives.

  3.   Hypotheticals.

  4.   Disjunctives.

 

28. LOGICAL COMPOSITIONS.

 
  1.   Symbolic Logic.

  2.   Addition.

  3.   Multiplication.

  4.   Expansions.

  5.   Utility.

 

29. HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM AND PRODUCTION.

 
  1.   Syllogism.

  2.   Other Derivatives.

  3.   Production.

 

30. LOGICAL APODOSIS AND DILEMMA.

 
  1.   Apodosis. 

  2.   Dilemma. 

  3.   Rebuttal. 

 

31. PARADOXES.

 
  1.   Internal Inconsistency.

  2.   The Stolen Concept Fallacy.

  3.   Systematization.

  4.   Properties.

 

32. DOUBLE PARADOXES.

 
  1.   Definition.

  2.   The Liar Paradox.

  3.   The Barber Paradox.

 

PART IV.   DE-RE CONDITIONING.

  

33. CONDITIONAL PROPOSITIONS.

 
  1.   De-re Conditioning. 

  2.   Types of Causality.

  3.   Laws of Causality.

 

34. NATURAL CONDITIONALS: FEATURES.

 
  1.   Basis and Connection.

  2.   Quantification.

  3.   Other Features.

  4.   Natural Disjunction.

 

35. NATURAL CONDITIONALS: OPPOSITIONS, EDUCTIONS.

 
  1.   Translations.

  2.   Oppositions.

  3.   Eductions.

 

36. NATURAL CONDITIONAL SYLLOGISM AND PRODUCTION.

 
  1.   Syllogism.

  2.   Summary and Quantities.

  3.   Production.

 

37. NATURAL APODOSIS AND DILEMMA.

 
  1.   Apodosis.

  2.   Dilemma. 

 

38. TEMPORAL CONDITIONALS.

 
  1.   Structure and Properties.

  2.   Relationships to Naturals. 

  3.   Mixed Modality Arguments.

 

39. EXTENSIONALS: FEATURES, OPPOSITIONS, EDUCTIONS.

 
  1.   Main Features.

  2.   Modal and Other Forms.

  3.   Oppositions.

  4.   Translations and Eductions. 

 

40. EXTENSIONAL CONDITIONAL DEDUCTION.

 
  1.   Syllogism.

  2.   Production.

  3.   Apodoses.

  4.   Dilemma.

 

41. MODALITIES OF SUBSUMPTION.

 
  1.   Formal Review.

  2.   Impact.

  3.   Primitives.

  4.   Transformations.

  5.   Imaginary Terms.

 

42. CONDENSED PROPOSITIONS.

 
  1.   Forms with Complex Terms. 

  2.   Making Possible or Necessary. 

 

PART Va. CLASS-LOGIC.

  

43. THE LOGIC OF CLASSES.

 
  1.   Subsumptive or Nominal.

  2.   Classes.

  3.   Classes of Classes.

 

44. HIERARCHIES AND ORDERS.

 
  1.   First Order Hierarchies.

  2.   Second Order Hierarchies. 

  3.   Extreme Cases.

 

45. ILLICIT PROCESSES IN CLASS LOGIC.

 
  1.   Self-membership.

  2.   The Russell Paradox.

  3.   Impermutability.

 

PART Vb.   ADDUCTION.

 

46. ADDUCTION.

 
  1.   Logical Probability.

  2.   Providing Evidence.

  3.   Weighting Evidence.

  4.   Other Types of Probability. 

 

47. THEORY FORMATION.

 
  1.   Theorizing.

  2.   Structure of Theories.

  3.   Criteria.

  4.   Control.

 

48. THEORY SELECTION.

 
  1.   The Scientific Method.

  2.   Compromises.

  3.   Theory Changes.

  4.   Exclusive Relationships.

 

49. SYNTHETIC LOGIC.

 
  1.   Synthesis.

  2.   Self-Criticism.

  3.   Fairness.

 

PART VI. FACTORIAL INDUCTION.

  

50. ACTUAL INDUCTION.

 
  1.   The Problem.

  2.   Induction of Particulars.

  3.   Generalization.

  4.   Particularization.

  5.   Validation.

 

51. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS.

 
  1.   Elements and Compounds.

  2.   Gross Formulas.

  3.   Oppositions.

  4.   Double Syllogisms.

  5.   Complements.

 

52. FRACTIONS AND INTEGERS.

 
  1.   Fractions.

  2.   Double Syllogisms.

  3.   Integers.

  4.   Further Developments.

 

53. FACTORIAL ANALYSIS.

 
  1.   Factorization.

  2.   Applications.

  3.   Overlap Issues.

  4.   More Factorial Formulas.

  5.   Open System Analysis.

See also, in this context, Appendix 1.

54. MODAL INDUCTION.

 
  1.   Knowability.

  2.   Equality of Status.

  3.   Stages of Induction.

  4.   Generalization vs. Particularization.

  5.   The Paradigm of Induction.

  6.   The Pursuit of Integers.

 

55. FACTOR SELECTION.

 
  1.   Prediction.

  2.   The Uniformity Principle. 

  3.   The Law of Generalization. 

 

56. APPLIED FACTOR SELECTION.

 
  1.   Closed Systems Results.

  2.   Some Overall Comments.

  3.   Rules of Generalization.

  4.   Review of Valid Moods.

  5.   Open System Results.

 

57. FORMULA REVISION.

 
  1.   Context Changes.

  2.   Kinds of Revision.

  3.   Particularization.

 

58. GROSS FORMULA REVISION.

 
  1.   Amplification.

  2.   Harmonization.

  3.   Unequal Gross Formulas.

  4.   Equal Gross Formulas.

  5.   Applications.

 

59. FACTORIAL FORMULA REVISION.

 
  1.   Adding Fractions to Integers.

  2.   Reconciliation of Integers. 

  3.   Indefinite Denial of Integers. 

  4.   Other Formula Revisions.

  5.   Revision of Deficient Formulas. 

 

PART VII.         PERSPECTIVES.

  

60. PHENOMENA.

 
  1.   Empirical or Hypothetical.

  2.   Physical or Mental.

  3.   Concrete and Abstract.

  4.   Presentative or Representative. 

 

61. CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE MIND.

 
  1.   A Relation.

  2.   Kinds of Consciousness.

  3.   The Mind.

  4.   Popular Psychology.

 

62. PERCEPTION AND RECOGNITION.

 
  1.   The Immediacy of Sense-Perception.

  2.   Logical Conditions of Recognition.

  3.   Other Applications.

 

63. PAST LOGIC.

 
  1.   Historical Judgment.

  2.   Aristotle, and Hellenic Logic. 

  3.   Roman, Arab, Medieval European Logic.

  4.   Oriental Logic. 

  5.   Modern Tendencies.

  6.   In The 20th Century.

 

64. CRITIQUE OF MODERN LOGIC.

 
  1.   Formalization and Symbolization.

  2.   Systematization and Axiomatization.

  3.   Modern Attitudes.

  4.   Improvements and Innovations. 

  5.   The Cutting Edge.

 

65. DEVELOPMENTS IN TROPOLOGY.

 
  1.   Tropology.

  2.   Roots.  

  3.   Shifts in Emphasis.

  4.   Setting the Stage.

  5.   Contemporary Currents.

  6.   Philosophical Discussions. 

 

66. METALOGIC.

 
  1.   Language and Meaning.

  2.   Definition and Proof.

  3.   Infinity in Logic.

  4.   Conceptual Logic.

 

67. INDUCTIVE LOGIC.

 
  1.   Degrees of Being.

  2.   Induction from Logical Possibility.

  3.   History of Inductive Logic. 

 

68. FUTURE LOGIC.

 
  1.   Summary of Findings.

  2.   Gaps to Fill.

  3.   Concluding Words.

     

APPENDIX 1 – Factorial Analysis of Elements and Gross Formulas (Open System).

                         PDF files of Complete table and Formulae used

APPENDIX 2Redefining Majority and Minority in FL.

 

REFERENCES

 

Story of Future Logic

 

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