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A Thematic Compilation

The Thematic Compilations are collections of essays on a specified topic drawn from Avi Sion’s past works.

The Laws of Thought

The Laws of Thought is an exploration of the deductive and inductive foundations of rational thought. The author here clarifies and defends Aristotle’s Three Laws of Thought, called the Laws of Identity, Non-contradiction and Exclusion of the Middle – and introduces two more, which are implicit in and crucial to them: the Fourth Law of Thought, called the Principle of Induction, and the Fifth Law of Thought, called the Principle of Deduction. This book is a thematic compilation drawn from past works by the author over a period of twenty three years. (Second edition, 2014.)

Chapter One – The Foundations of Logic

Drawn from Future Logic (1990), chapter 2.

1. The Law of Identity

2. The Law of Contradiction

3. The Law of the Excluded Middle

Chapter Two – Logical Relations

Drawn from Future Logic (1990), chapter 3 (part of section 3 omitted).

1. True or False

2. Branches of Logic

3. Tools of Logic

4. Axioms of Logic

Chapter Three – Credibility

Drawn from Future Logic (1990), chapter 20 (sections 1-3).

1. Ground of the Laws

2. Functions of the Laws

3. More on Credibility

Chapter Four – Paradoxes

Drawn from Future Logic (1990), chapter 31 (sections 1 & 2).

1. Internal Inconsistency

2. The Stolen Concept Fallacy

Chapter Five – Double Paradoxes

Drawn from Future Logic (1990), chapter 32.

1. Definition

2. The Liar Paradox

3. The Barber Paradox

Chapter Six

Drawn from Buddhist Illogic (2002), chapter 1 & chapter 2.

1. The Tetralemma

2. Nagarjuna’s Misinterpretation

3. Neither Real Nor Unreal

4. Common Way vs. Middle Way

Chapter Seven

Drawn from Phenomenology (2003), chapter 1 (sections 1 & 2).

1. Phenomenology

2. Knowledge is Based On Appearance

Chapter Eight

Drawn from Phenomenology (2003), chapter 2 (sections 2 & 3).

1. Appearance and Other Large Concepts

2. Material, Mental, Intuitive, Abstract

Chapter Nine – Compatibility or Incompatibility

Drawn from Phenomenology (2003), chapter4 (section 2).

1. Apprehension

2. Explications

3. Negation

4. Primaries

Chapter Ten

Drawn from Phenomenology (2003), chapter 7 (section 3) and chapter 4 (section 5).

1. Logical Attitudes

2. Unity In Plurality

Chapter Eleven

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 1 (sections 1-3).

1. Dialectical Reasoning

2. Genesis of Axioms

3. Paradoxical Propositions

Chapter Twelve

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 1 (sections 4-6).

1. Contradiction

2. Varieties of Contradiction

3. Double Standards

Chapter Thirteen

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 1 (sections 7-10).

1. Special Status of the Laws

2. Motors of Rational Thought

3. Cogito, Ergo Sum

4. Concerning Identity

Chapter Fourteen

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 2 (section 17).

1. Appearance, Reality and Illusion

2. Existence and Non-existence

Chapter Fifteen

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 3 (section 5), chapter 5 (section 1) and chapter 6 (sections 3 & 4).

1. Poles of Duality

2. On the Liar paradox

3. Non-Aristotelian “Logic”

4. Postmodern “Logic”

Chapter Sixteen – On Negation

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 9 (sections 1-4).

1. Negation in Adduction

2. Positive and Negative Phenomena

3. Positive Experience Precedes Negation

4. Negation is an Intention

Chapter Seventeen – On Negation

Drawn from Ruminations (2005), chapter 9 (sections 5-8).

1. Formal Consequences

2. Negation and the Laws of Thought

3. Pure Experience

4. Consistency is Natural

Chapter Eighteen – The Principle of Induction

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), Hume’s Problems with Induction, chapter 2.

1. The Uniformity Principle

2. The Principle of Induction

3. Regarding Husserl

4. The Flexibility of Induction

Chapter Nineteen The Primacy of the Laws

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 2.

1. Briefly Put

2. Antagonism to the Laws

3. Counterarguments

4.Our Pedestrian Path

Chapter Twenty

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 3 & chapter 4.

1. Ontological Status of the Laws

2. The Need for a Subject

3. Fuzzy Logic

4. Stick to Logic

Chapter Twenty-One Misrepresentation of Aristotle

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 5.

1. Ups and Downs of Aristotelianism

2. Aristotle Bashing

3. Aristotle’s Dynamism

Chapter Twenty-Two Not on the Geometrical Model

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 6.

1. How to Validate Logic?

2. The Inductive Nature of Knowledge

3. The Crucial Role of Negation

Chapter Twenty-Three A Poisonous Brew

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 7.

1. Truth vs. Proof

2. Double Negation

Chapter Twenty-Four The Game of One-upmanship

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 8.

1. Misleading Symbolism

2. Upping the Ante

Chapter Twenty-Five In Buddhist Discourse

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 9.

1. Mitigating Clarifications

2. Examples

3. Doing Rather than Talking

4. Imprecise Language

Chapter Twenty-Six The Laws of Thought in Meditation

Drawn from Logical and Spiritual Reflections (2008), In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought, chapter 20.

1. Cognitive Virtues

2. The Absurdity of the Antitheses

Chapter Twenty Seven – Understanding the Laws of Thought

Drawn from A Fortiori Logic (2013), chapters 3.1, 7.2.

1. Adapting the Laws of Thought

2. Two More Laws of Thought

Chapter Twenty Eight – Assaults on Logic

Drawn from A Fortiori Logic (2013), chapter 12.1 and appendix 7.3

1. Zen’s Anti-logic

2. The Vanity of the Tetralemma

Chapter Twenty Nine – Modern Logic

Drawn from A Fortiori Logic (2013), appendices 7.1-2.

1. Modern Symbolic Logic

2. The Existential Import Doctrine

Chapter Thirty – The Liar and Russell Paradoxes (Redux)

Drawn from A Fortiori Logic (2013), appendices 7.4-5.

1. The Liar Paradox (Redux)

2. The Russell Paradox (Redux)